La presente informativa è resa, anche ai sensi dell’art. 13 del D. Lgs. 196/2003 “Codice in materia di protezione dei dati personali” (“Codice Privacy”) 
e degli artt. 13 e 14 del Regolamento (UE) 2016/679 (“GDPR”), a coloro che si collegano alla presente edizione online del giornale Tribuna Economica di proprietà di AFC Editore Soc. Coop. 

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The overall tax-to-GDP ratio, meaning the sum of taxes and net social contributions as a percentage of gross domestic product, stood at 41.1% in the European Union (EU) in 2019, a decrease compared with 2018 (41.2%). In the euro area, tax revenue accounted for 41.6% of GDP in 2019, unchanged compared to 2018.

This information comes from a publication issued by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. Tax indicators are compiled in a harmonised framework based on the European System of Accounts (ESA 2010), enabling an accurate comparison of the tax systems and tax policies between EU Member States.

Highest tax-to-GDP ratio in France, Denmark and Belgium.   The tax-to-GDP ratio varies significantly between Member States, with the highest share of taxes and social contributions in percentage of GDP in 2019 being recorded in France (47.4%), Denmark (46.9%) and Belgium (45.9%), followed by Sweden (43.6%), Austria (43.1%), Italy (42.6%) and Finland (42.3%). At the opposite end of the scale, Ireland (22.7%) and Romania (26.8%), ahead of Bulgaria (30.3%), Lithuania (30.4%) and Latvia (31.3%) registered the lowest ratios.

Largest increase of tax-to-GDP ratio in Cyprus, largest decrease in Belgium.    Compared with 2018, the tax-to-GDP ratio increased in twelve Member States in 2019, with the largest rise being observed in Cyprus (from 33.5% in 2018 to 35.6% in 2019), ahead of Denmark (from 45.1% to 46.9%). In contrast, decreases were recorded in thirteen Member States, notably in Belgium (from 47.1% in 2018 to 45.9% in 2019), Greece (from 42.7% to 41.9%), Sweden (from 44.4% to 43.6%) and France (from 48.2% to 47.4%).

Diverse tax policies in EU Member States.    In 2019, net social contributions made up the largest part of tax revenue in the EU (accounting for 14.2% of GDP), closely followed by taxes on production and imports (13.7% of GDP) and taxes on income and wealth (13.0%). Looking at the main tax categories, a clear diversity prevails across the EU Member States. In 2019, the share of taxes on production and imports was highest in Sweden (where they accounted for 22.2% of GDP), Croatia (20.3%) and Hungary (18.1%), while they were lowest in Ireland (7.8%), Romania (10.7%) and Germany (10.9%). For taxes related to income and wealth, the highest share by far was registered in Denmark (30.7% of GDP), ahead of Sweden (18.0%) and Luxembourg (16.5%). In contrast, Romania (4.8%), Bulgaria (5.5%) as well as Croatia and Hungary (both 6.6%) recorded the lowest taxes on income and wealth as a percentage of GDP. Net social contributions accounted for a large proportion of GDP in Germany (17.3%), France (16.8%) and Slovenia (16.0%), while the lowest shares were observed in Denmark (0.8% of GDP), Sweden (3.4%) and Ireland (4.5%).